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​​Civil Procedure and Alternative Dispute Resolution

Introduction

Procedural law creates, defines and regulates the rights and duties of individuals. In simple words, this describes what to do and how to do, whenever a case is brought before a court and these rules or laws ensure that justice is administered equitably throughout court system. There are two types of procedural law i.e. Criminal Procedure and Civil Procedure.

Criminal Procedure concerns the methods of prosecuting and defending criminal offences. Criminal trials used by government to protect and provide relief to the people by attempting to sentence or punish the accused.

“Civil Procedure” is the body of laws which concern the prescribed methods of resolving disputes through litigation. Civil trials can be used by anyone to enforce, redress or protect their legal rights through court orders and monetary awards. These procedures apply in the cases that do not fall under criminal Law domain and includes various kinds of Appeals like Property dispute cases, contract matters, Partition cases, Environment related cases, Rent control matters, educational institution cases, Service related cases, labour cases, intellectual property right related cases, debt recovery cases, Mines and Mining rights cases, wills and succession cases, Income tax appeals, Sales tax Appeals etc.

 
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Civil Procedure includes many subtopics like jurisdiction & venue (describe particular country or geographical area in which a particular court with jurisdiction may hear and determine a case), pleadings & motions (formal documents includes plaintiff’s initial allegations and defendant’s responses over them) discovery (gather case based information by documents and deposition i.e. written or oral interview of a party or witness by a lawyer).

This research guide is prepared by the library staff aims to list useful sources of information on Civil Procedure and Alternative Dispute Resolution in India and selective overseas jurisdictions. This guide lists sources which are available in JGU Library and elsewhere, both in print and electronic forms and also includes important links to useful free & open access web resources. 

 

Primary Sources (Statutes, Court Rules & Procedures) - Indian

1. Code of Civil Procedure 1908

Civil Procedure Code, 1908 is a procedural law which related to administration of Indian Civil Procedure. This act or statute consolidate by various acts of Central and State Legislatures and amend from time to time to enable prompt disposal of the cases and relief to the concerned parties.  Links to the act have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library and the open access web resources, given below:

2. Pleading and forms
Links to the drafts and forms have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library and the open access web resources, given below:

3. Judicial System in India

Supreme Court of India  is the highest court of Indian Judicial System. It has powers to hear cases with the following jurisdictions:

  • Appellate Jurisdiction: any order or Judgment in a Civil case, Criminal case, tax case, Intellectual property case, Constitution case or any other case of any High Court of India or the National tribunals can be appealed before the Supreme Court of India.
  • Original Jurisdiction: all cases between the Government of India and the States of India
  • Advisory Jurisdiction: matters which may specifically be referred to Supreme Court of India by the President of India under Article 143 of the Constitution. The President of India may refer any question of law or public importance to Supreme Court for its advice. But the Supreme Court is not bound to give advice. In case, the advice or the opinion of the Court is sent to the President, he may or may not accept it and the advice of the Court is not binding on the President.

    Supreme Court of India includes Supreme Court Rules, Practice and procedure handbook, Supreme Court ReportDaily Cause List, E-filing (Instructions for E-filing registration, User Manual) and Forms.

    Links to the Supreme Court judgments have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library, given below:

  • Westlaw India Go to Cases > To browse judgments, select “Supreme Court Judgments” & “full-text judgments”. Now judgment can be browse yearly by party name which is arranged alphabetically. To search judgments, search by Party/ by citation.
  • SCC Online Go to IP Access > Find By Citation (on middle bottom) > Select Journal and Enter the citation in search pane. To browse judgments, search “Supreme Court of India” & Select only “Supreme Court” in left side tab. It’ll search all Supreme Court judgment and now you can sort judgment by party/ by decision date from result list.
  • Manupatra Go to IP Access-> Supreme Court ( here all supreme court judgments and order can be retrieved by selecting specified period or by legal search, given on middle top)
     

Indian High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in each state and union territory. Indian judicial system comprise 24 High Courts at state and union territory level of India among which Madras High Court, Bombay High Court, Calcutta High Court and Allahabad High Court are the oldest four Indian High Courts. To access official website of Indian high courts with their orders, judgments, causelist and other links click here
         Links to the High Court judgments have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library,  given below:

  • Westlaw India Go to Cases > To browse High Court judgments, select High Court & “full-text judgments”. Now judgment can be browse yearly, by party name which is arranged alphabetically. To search judgments, search by Party/ by citation.
  • SCC Online Go to IP Access > Find by Citation (on middle bottom) > Select Journal and Enter the citation in search pane. To browse judgments, search “High courts” & Select required “High Court” in left side tab. It’ll search all judgment and now you can sort judgment by party/ by decision date from result list.
  • Manupatra Go to IP Access-> High Courts and other courts ( here all high courts judgments  can be retrieved by selecting specified period or by legal search, given on middle top)

District Courts are under administrative control of the High Court of the State to which the district concerned belongs. District court exercises jurisdiction both on original side and appellate side in civil and criminal matters arising in the District. The territorial and pecuniary jurisdiction in civil matters is usually set in concerned state enactments on the subject of civil courts. On the criminal side, jurisdiction is exclusively derived from the criminal procedure code.
         Official website of Indian district courts with their orders, judgments, causelist and other links, can be access as follow:

Tribunals and Commissions are courts, judicial body or board which has quasi-judicial functions, such as a public utilities board which sets rates or a planning commission which can allow variances from zoning regulations. To access official website of Indian Tribunals & Commissions and and also their judgments with coverage in subscribed legal databases by JGU Library can be accessed by the Indian trinunals and commission tab.

          Links to the Tribunals & Commissions judgments have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library, given below:

  • Westlaw India Go to Cases and then tribunals, to browse judgments>  select Tribunal & “full-text judgments”. Now judgment can be browse yearly, then by party name which is arranged alphabetically. To search judgments, search by Party/ by citation.
  • SCC Online Go to IP Access > Find by Citation (on middle bottom) > Select Journal and Enter the citation in search pane. To browse judgments, search “Tribunal” & Select required “Tribunal or commission” in left side tab. It’ll search all judgment and now you can sort judgment by party/ by decision date from result list.
  • Manupatra Go to IP Access-> Tribunals & Commissions ( here all Tribunals & Commissions judgments can be retrieved by selecting specified period or by legal search, given on middle top)
     

 

Indian Tribunals and Commissions

Tribunals and Commissions are courts, judicial body or board which has quasi-judicial functions, such as a public utilities board which sets rates or a planning commission which can allow variances from zoning regulations. Official website of Indian Tribunals & Commissions and their coverage in subscribed legal databases by JGU Library, are tabulated below:

Tribunals and Commissions

Official Website

SCC
Online

Manupatra

Westlaw
India

Andhra Pradesh Administrative
Tribunal (APAT)

http://www.apat.ap.gov.in/

-

-

-

Appellate Authority for Industrial
and Financial Reconstruction

-

-

2010
onwards

-

Appellate Tribunal For Electricity (APTEL)

http://aptel.gov.in/

2005
onwards

2005
onwards

2008
onwards

Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange

-

-

2001
onwards

-

Appellate Tribunal for Forfeited
Property (ATFP)

-

-

1987
onwards

-

Appellate Tribunal under
Preventionof Money Laundering

-

-

2001
onwards

-

Armed Force Tribunal (AFT)

http://www.aftdelhi.nic.in/

2009
onwards

2009
onwards

-

Authority for Advance Rulings (AAR)

http://www.aarrulings.in/

2004
onwards

1994
onwards

1980
onwards

Central Administrative Tribunal (CGAT)

http://cgat.gov.in/

-

-

1990
onwards

Central Electricity Regulatory
Commission (CERC)

http://www.cercind.gov.in/

2000
onwards

2005
onwards

-

Central Information Commission (CIC)

http://cic.gov.in/

2006
onwards

2006
onwards

2006
onwards

Central Sales Tax Appellate Authority

-

-

2007
onwards

-

Company Law Board (CLB)

http://www.clb.nic.in/

2011
onwards

1991
onwards

1965
onwards

Competition Appellate Tribunal (CAT)

http://compat.nic.in/

2009
onwards

1998
onwards

-

Competition Commission of India (CCI)

http://www.cci.gov.in/

2010
onwards

2009
onwards

2010
onwards

Copyright Board

-

-

2001
onwards

-

Customs Excise And Gold Appellate Tribunal

-

-

-

1981-2003

Customs Excise & Service Tax Appellate
Tribunal (CESTAT)

http://cestat.gov.in/

2013
onwards

1980
onwards

2000
onwards

Cyber Appellate Tribunal (Cy AT)

http://catindia.gov.in/

2009-2011

2009
onwards

-

Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal (DRAT)

http://www.drat.tn.nic.in/

-

2001
onwards

2002-2011

Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT)

http://www.bankdrt.com
/nf/in_connect
/tribunals.php

-

2002
onwards

2003-2009

Department of Revenue
Revisionary Authority

-

-

-

1957
onwards

Employees’ Provident Funds
Appellate Tribunal (EPFAT)

http://www.epfindia.
gov.in/EPFAT/epfat.htm

-

2010
onwards

-

Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)

http://itat.nic.in/

2011
onwards

1976
onwards

1971
onwards

Industrial Court
(Mumbai & Chandigarh)

-

-

1995 onwards

-

Intellectual Property
Appellate Board (IPAB)

http://www.ipab.tn.nic.in/

2005
onwards

2003
onwards

2002
onwards

Monopolies and Restrictive
Trade Practices Commission (
MRTP)

-

-

1974
onwards

-

National Consumer Disputes Redressal
Commission (NCDRC)

http://ncdrc.nic.in/

2001
onwards

1989
onwards

1989
onwards

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

http://www.greent
ribunal.gov.in/

2011
onwards

2011
onwards

-

Railway Claims Tribunal

http://rct.nic.in/

-

-

-

Securities & Exchange Board
of India (SEBI)/ Securities
Appellate Tribunal (SAT)

http://sebi.com/

1998
onwards

1996
onwards

1997
onwards

State Consumer Disputes
Redressal Commission

-

-

2001
onwards
(all states)

1990
onwards

State Taxation Tribunal
(Andhra Pradesh, Bombay,Delhi,
Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir,
Karnataka,Rajasthan, Tamil
Nadu and West Bengal)

-

-

1980
onwards

-

Telecom Disputes Settlement and
Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)

http://tdsat.nic.in/

1990
onwards

2001
onwards

2001
onwards

Trade Marks Registry

-

-

1978,
1984,
2001
onwards

-

Links to the Tribunals & Commissions judgments have been provided with the sources that are subscribed by JGU library, given below:

  • Westlaw India Go to Cases and then tribunals, to browse judgments>  select Tribunal & “full-text judgments”. Now judgment can be browse yearly, then by party name which is arranged alphabetically. To search judgments, search by Party/ by citation.
  • SCC Online Go to IP Access > Find by Citation (on middle bottom) > Select Journal and Enter the citation in search pane. To browse judgments, search “Tribunal” & Select required “Tribunal or commission” in left side tab. It’ll search all judgment and now you can sort judgment by party/ by decision date from result list.
  • Manupatra Go to IP Access-> Tribunals & Commissions ( here all Tribunals & Commissions judgments can be retrieved by selecting specified period or by legal search, given on middle top)

Primary Sources (Statutes, Court Rules & Procedures) – Overseas Countries

1. Judicial System – Overseas

United States –FRCP   

Civil procedure in the United States consists of the rules of civil procedure that govern procedure in the federal courts, the 50 state court systems, and in the territorial courts where each state is free to operate its own system of civil procedure independent of her sister states and the federal court system.
United States judicial system is stratified into federal courts & state supreme courts which acted simultaneously and are closely linked.

  • Federal Court form the judicial branch of the Federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. Federal courts involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.
  • State Supreme Courts every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court.
    A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases.

United Kingdom – CPR, 1999

Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) used by the Court of Appeal, High Court of Justice, and County Courts in civil cases in England and Wales. To find United Kingdom courts structure, click here
Civil justice in England and Wales, mainly dealt within the County Courts and in more substantial and complex cases, dealt within the High Court. Civil matters are heard at first instance (i.e. not appeals) in the County Court. The County Court hears all Small Claim and Fast Track cases. County Courts designated as 'civil trial centres' may also deal with claims allocated to the Multi Track.

2. Cases & Judgments – Overseas

JGU Library is subscribing a number of legal databases which comprising cases & judgments of overseas countries like United States, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Korea, United Kingdom, Asian & European Union and many more. Subscribed Legal Databases list are as given below:

  • Lexis Nexis
  • Westlaw India
  • SCC Online apart Indian judgments including United States, Bangladesh, Canada, Pakistan, Africa , Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Swaziland, Rangoon etc. judgments
  • Manupatra apart Indian judgments including United States, United Kingdom, International Court of Justice, Bangladesh, Canada, Pakistan, South Africa and Sri Lanka judgments

 

Books on Civil Procedure at JGU Library

The Library holds a number of print and e-books on the subject. Books on various aspects of Civil Procedure are shelved in the following sequences:

Class Numbers  Subjects        
347 Civil Procedure & Courts
347.001-347.009 Civil procedure theory & philosophy, dictionaries, encyclopedias and organizations
347.094  Civil procedure of European countries like England, France, Italy
347.095 Civil procedure of Asian countries like China, Japan, India
347.096 Civil procedure of African countries
347.098-347.099 Civil procedure of North and South America
347.1-347.13 Court system and administration
347.14 Judges & Justice, judges speaks
347.2 Courts with general original jurisdiction
347.3 Appellate courts like Supreme courts
347.4 Courts with specialized jurisdiction
347.5  Court Procedures like Indian,United States and other countries court procedures
347.51-347.57  Court rules, motions, actions, lawsuits, legal cost and fees
347.6  Evidence, Trial evidence, affidavits & witnesses
347.7 Trial procedures, pre-trial procedures including summons, pleadings and practice
347.8 Appellate procedure
347.9 Alternative Dispute resolution including arbitration, conciliation, mediation
   

 

Major Reference Works (Print & eBooks)

Reference works, secondary and tertiary sources are the starting point to begin your research. Some major reference works on Civil Procedure and Arbitration Dispute Resolution are listed below. Links to the JGU library catalogue have been provided with the sources that are available in the library.

Print Books - Indian

Print Books – Foreign

  • Mahmood, M. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. Lahore: Pakistan Law Times Publications, 2010 this two-volume set is based on the rulings and pronouncements of the Superior Courts of Pakistan. The provisions of all the allied enactments like the Limitation Act, Qanun-e-Shahadat Order, West Pakistan Civil Courts Ordinance and other laws have been discussed at appropriate place.
  • Lewis, Thomas T. and Richard L Wilson. Encyclopedia of the US supreme court. Pasadena: Salem Press, 2001 this three-volume set consists 1,075 topical essays that devoted to important Supreme Court decisions; historical overviews of how the Court has treated important issues such as civil rights, freedom of speech, and voting rights; areas of law (e.g., administrative, environmental, immigration); specific historical events and eras, including the Civil War, cold war, and World War II; court administration and structure; legal terms (e.g., Advisory opinions, Standing); judicial interpretation of state and federal laws; and biographies of Supreme Court justices, failed nominees, and other persons integral to the Court's operation.
  • Civil Procedure. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2010 this two-volume set consists UK Civil Procedures Rules (CPR) and Practice Directions 2010 which is available in White Book on Westlaw UK.
    Note: To access White Book 2014- Online, go to JGU subscribed database Westlaw India (UKCP-MULT)
  • Civil Procedure Handbook 2009/2010. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009 this consist all UK Civil Procedure Rules, Practice Directions, and Pre-Action Protocols approved to 6 April 2009, including the 46th, 47th and 48th Updates to the CPR.
  • Best, Arthur. Wigmore on Evidence.  Austin: Wolter Kluwer, 1983 Wigmore's 14 volumes set treatise, continues to influence the law of evidence. From doctrinal considerations such as the nature of inference and the exclusionary rules to case analysis involving such up-to-the-minute controversies as DNA "fingerprinting" and patient-psychotherapist privilege, this annually supplemented masterwork continues to A authoritative guidance again and again.
  • Berg, Albert Jan Van Den. Yearbook Commercial Arbitration. Wolter Kluwer, 2008 is a major source of information and commentary on law and practice in the field. The Yearbook's broad coverage includes: Arbitral awards, both institutional and ad hoc, with a separate accompanying section index; Selected court decisions on arbitration from all around the world during the previous year; Court decisions applying the UNCITRAL Model Law as reported in Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT), which suggest UNCITRAL's growing significance as a source of instruments and texts; New and amended arbitration rules of the primary institutions, both international and national; Awards and decisions of the Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal, ICC, ICSID, and other bodies; Recent developments in arbitration law and practice; and Decisions applying the major multilateral arbitration conventions (New York 1958, Europe 1961, Washington 1965, Panama 1975), with commentary.
  • Born, Gary B. International civil litigation in United States courts. Boston: Kluwer International Law, 1996 includes new sections on international commercial arbitration, choice of law, subject matter jurisdiction, and 28 U.S.C. 1782, as well as comparative materials on the Brussels Convention.
  • Stephen N. Subrin et al. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. New York: Kluwer International Law, 2011 includes excerpts from the Restatement (Second) of Judgments, U.S. Code Titles 9,28 and 42, ALi/UNIDROIT transnational rules of civil procedure, state long-arm and venue statutes including Massachusetts, New York, and California etc. 
  • Meadow, Carrie. Dispute resolution: Beyond the Adversary Model. New York: Aspen Pub., 2004 incorporates four key aspects for each of the Negotiation, Mediation, Arbitration, and Hybrid dispute resolution processes: the theoretical framework defining the process, the skills needed to practice it, the ethical issues implicated in its use, and the legal and policy analyses relevant to the process.

E-Books

eBooks can be found in numerous e-books collections subscribed by the library. For a list of e-books collections available at JGU Library, please click here http://www.jgu.edu.in/library/content/e-books5. Individually acquired e-books titles are hosted on JGU's Institutional E-archives http://dspace.jgu.edu.in:8080/jspui/handle/10739/56. These can be searched on the online library catalogue at http://koha.jgu.edu.in. Some of the eBooks on Civil Procedures are listed below:

eBooks in Manupatra

  • Arbitration & ADR
  • Code of Civil Procedure
  • Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
  • Law of Evidence

eBooks in HeinOnline

eBooks in LexisNexis

  • Court Material & Jury Instruction collection includes Federal & State Rules of Court, USCS- Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Evidence, Appellate Procedure Legislation statute & codes includes Federal & State Rules of Court, USCS- Federal rules annotated etc.
  • Treaties & Analytical Material includes Federal Rules of Evidence Manual (FREMAN) the most concise and authoritative reference interpreting the Federal Rules; New Jersey Court Rules Annotated etc.

eBooks in Westlaw India

  • Wright & Miller. Federal Practice & Procedure (FPP)- this multi-volume treatise is published by West, a Thomson Reuters business. The database is updated annually by printed supplements and by a monthly cumulative supplemental service pamphlet. The Supplemental Service is prepared monthly by the publisher to timely alert subscribers to new case law, legislation, Rule amendments, journal articles and other substantive developments affecting the subject matter of Federal Practice & Procedure.
  • Nichol's Cyclopedia of Federal Procedure Forms (NCFPF) – is a seven-volume set which provides to the practitioner a comprehensive array of federal pleading and practice forms, accompanied by a concise treatment of the latest relevant federal law.
  • Witkin's California Treatises (WITKIN) – Witkin treatises are a comprehensive research resource for California law. The entire Witkin treatise collection consists of several multi-volume sets (electronic). Each treatise is organized like an encyclopedia, and features multi-paragraph explanations of legal principles grouped by subject.
  • Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules and Commentary (FRCP-RC) – is a 2 volume set database, includes the complete, up-to-date text of all Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and, for each rule, a detailed practice commentary that discusses what the rule does, how it has been applied, and how it relates to other rules or other procedural matters.
  • Federal Procedure (FEDPROC) – Federal Procedure, Lawyers Edition, is a  59-volume set database containing 80 chapters. It provides an encyclopedia text treatment of all aspects of federal procedure - civil, criminal, and administrative. Federal Procedure covers procedure for the Federal District Courts, Courts of Appeals, and the Supreme Court, as well as comprehensive coverage of procedure for specialized courts and administrative agencies.

e-Journals

Here is a list of top ranked journals of civil litigation and dispute resolution , (Source: Washington & Lee University School of Law) available at JGU Library:

  • Supreme Court Review. Pub.: University of Chicago Law School. (for 1960-2008 issues available in Heinonline and from 1993 onwards available in Westlaw India)
  • The Federal Courts Law Review. Pub.: Federal Magistrate Judges Association. (from 1998 onwards available in Heinonline)
  • Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. Pub.: Wiley Blackwell. (Vol. 1-6 available in Heinonline and from Vol. 6 onwards available in LexisNexis)
  • The Journal of Appellate Practice and Process. Pub.: University of Arkansas at Little Rock -School of Law. (from Vol. 1 onwards available in Heinonline)
  • Journal of International Dispute Settlement. Pub.: Oxford University Press. (Vol.1-2 available in Westlaw India)
  • The Journal of American Arbitration (Pub.: Juris Publishing, Inc.)- not subscribed by JGU Library
  • Arbitration International (Pub.: Wolters Kluwer) - not subscribed by JGU Library
  • Judicature.  Pub.: American Judicature Society. (from Vol. 1 onwards available in Heinonline)
  • Defense Counsel Journal.  Pub.: International Association of Defense Counsel. (from Vol. 1 onwards available in Heinonline)
  • Journal of Private International Law.  Pub.: Hart Pub. (Vol.1-4 available in Heinonline)

In addition of the above mentioned top ranked journals, click here to access a number of databases subscribed by Global Library which consist numerous journals of civil litigation and dispute resolution such as Heinonline, Lexis Nexis, Westlaw India, SCC Online, Manupatra, Duke Journals, Cambridge Journals, Oxford Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, JSTOR etc.

Specific aspects of Civil Procedures and related subjects

Judicial Appointments

Judicial Recusal
Judicial recusal or judicial disqualification refers to the act by which a judge recuses himself or removal of a judge on a party’s motion.

 

Legal Abbreviation

  • Abbreviations of legal publications (Monash University Law Library) use this Guide to find the meaning of abbreviations of legal publications. The Guide allows you to browse a comprehensive listing of legal abbreviations in alphabetical order. This Guide is developed by the Monash University Law Library.
  • Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations allows you to search for the meaning of abbreviations for English language legal publications, from the British Isles, the Commonwealth including Australia, and the United States, including those covering international and comparative law. A wide selection of major foreign language law publications is also included. The database is developed by Cardiff University.

Legal Citation

 

Blogs

Blogs can be very useful sources of information on civil procedure as they offer analysis of current developments; discussion of problems and issues arising under court rules, as well as discussion of recently filed or decided cases.

  • Civil Procedure & Federal Courts providing information, news and analysis for law professors, practitioners and the general public about the law of civil procedure in the US.
  • Civil Procedure Blog provide the most up to date information on Federal Rules of Civil Procedure with the cases to each rule. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) govern civil procedure (i.e. for civil lawsuits) in United States district federal courts.
  • Federal Civil Practice Bulletin dedicated to federal civil practice and procedure.
  • California Appellate Law Blog offering commentary on current court opinions and how they impact both trial and appellate lawyers.
  • ABA Journal compiled a list on Civil Procedures Blogs. To see this list, click here

Apps

There are several free and for purchase apps, available for Android devices that can assist with Civil Procedure information updates. Android Apps for Civil Procedure can be found in the following general sources:

Related Resource Pages

  • Criminal Law (under construction)

Subject Guides at other Library websites

Acknowledgements

Staff of Global Library gratefully acknowledge contribution of Mr. Buddhi Prakash Chauhan, Library Director for his leadership in preparation of this Resource Guide.